Sulfuric acid will gradually corrode the lead plates, especially the positive plates. Excessive gassing, high operating temperatures (where acid chemistry is more active), and deep discharges can accelerate corrosion, allowing the acid to penetrate deeply into the plates.
Currents greater than those recommended by the manufacturer can cause heat generation, which accelerates corrosion, as well as mechanical stress. These stresses can cause the plates to flex, causing excessive shedding and possibly even shorting the plates.
3. Electrolyte loss
The electrolyte should always be on top of the plates, otherwise damage to the plates will occur, which may include excessive corrosion (exposure to air), or damage due to the plates having unevenly charged material.
4. positive plate growth
The positive plates continue to expand and come into contact during discharge/charge cycles, which, in some designs, can cause the positive plates to grow and be pushed up. This breaks the seal, which then causes excessive corrosion after the acid climbs.
5. Plate fatigue
The formation of lead sulfate, which swells the plates, and the decomposition of lead sulfate, which shrinks the plates, can cause permanent damage to the battery, including loss of active material on the plates, cracking or bending of the plates.
6. Separator short circuit
A separator is placed between the positive and negative plates to prevent them from touching. Over time, the separator will age, shorting out the plates.
7. fall off
Shedding refers to the detachment of the active material from the lead dioxide of the positive plate. Shedding is common during battery charge and discharge cycles (affecting life) and can be accelerated by gassing.
Loss of active material can cause the cell to become less efficient, eventually reaching the end of its life, and shedding can also cause material to build up on the bottom of the cell, causing a short circuit in the plates.
Delamination refers to the fact that the heavier acid will descend to the bottom of the cell. If the battery is left in this state for a long time, the uneven distribution of acid will cause the following problems:
(1) The corrosion of the bottom of the plate is accelerated.
(2) The uneven distribution of the plate charge density leads to inconsistent operation of the battery cells.
When discharging, the plates are converted into lead sulfate, and vice versa when charging. If a battery is left in a low-charge state for an extended period of time, it may produce larger, harder crystals of lead sulfate (sulfate) that are more difficult to break down during charging. The production of sulfate will lead to a decrease in capacity, an increase in the internal resistance of the battery, and even the rupture of the plates.
Vibration or shock can damage the plates. Batteries designed for stand-alone systems are not as powerful as those designed for automobiles, and vibrations can lead to loss of active material on the plates and possibly even cracking of the plates.